Cleopatra (English Wikipedia)

Analysis of information sources in references of the Wikipedia article "Cleopatra" in English language version.

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academia.edu

  • Reece (2017, p. 203) notes that "[t]he fragmentary texts of ancient Greek papyri do not often make their way into the modern public arena, but this one has, and with fascinating results, while remaining almost entirely unacknowledged is the remarkable fact that Cleopatra's one-word subscription contains a blatant spelling error: γινέσθωι, with a superfluous iota adscript." This spelling error "has not been noted by the popular media", however, being "simply transliterated [...] including, without comment, the superfluous iota adscript" (p. 208). Even in academic sources, the misspelling was largely unacknowledged or quietly corrected (pp. 206–208, 210).
    Although described as "'normal' orthography" (in contrast with "'correct' orthography") by Peter van Minnen (p. 208), the spelling error is "much rarer and more puzzling" than the sort one would expect from the Greek papyri from Egypt (p. 210)—so rare, in fact, that it occurs only twice in the 70,000 Greek papyri between the 3rd century BC and 8th century AD in the Papyrological Navigator's database. This is especially so when considering it was added to a word "with no etymological or morphological reason for having an iota adscript" (p. 210) and was written by "the well-educated, native Greek-speaking, queen of Egypt" Cleopatra VII (p. 208). Reece, Steve (2017), "Cleopatra Couldn't Spell (And Neither Can We!)", in Groton, Anne Harmar (ed.), Ab Omni Parte Beatus: Classical Essays in Honor of James M. May, Mundelein, Illinois: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, pp. 201–220, ISBN 978-0-86516-843-5, LCCN 2017002236, OCLC 969973660, archived from the original on 9 July 2021, retrieved 2 September 2018.
  • Reece (2017), pp. 201–202. Reece, Steve (2017), "Cleopatra Couldn't Spell (And Neither Can We!)", in Groton, Anne Harmar (ed.), Ab Omni Parte Beatus: Classical Essays in Honor of James M. May, Mundelein, Illinois: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, pp. 201–220, ISBN 978-0-86516-843-5, LCCN 2017002236, OCLC 969973660, archived from the original on 9 July 2021, retrieved 2 September 2018.

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bbc.co.uk

  • The refusal of Ptolemaic rulers to speak the native language, Late Egyptian, is why Ancient Greek (i.e. Koine Greek) was used along with Late Egyptian on official court documents such as the Rosetta Stone ("Radio 4 Programmes – A History of the World in 100 Objects, Empire Builders (300 BC – 1 AD), Rosetta Stone". BBC. Archived from the original on 23 May 2010. Retrieved 7 June 2010.).
    As explained by Burstein (2004, pp. 43–54), Ptolemaic Alexandria was considered a polis (city-state) separate from the country of Egypt, with citizenship reserved for Greeks and Ancient Macedonians, but various other ethnic groups resided there, especially the Jews, as well as native Egyptians, Syrians, and Nubians.
    For further validation, see Grant (1972, p. 3).
    For the multiple languages spoken by Cleopatra, see Roller (2010, pp. 46–48) and Burstein (2004, pp. 11–12).
    For further validation about Ancient Greek being the official language of the Ptolemaic dynasty, see Jones (2006, p. 3). Burstein, Stanley M. (2004), The Reign of Cleopatra, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, ISBN 978-0-313-32527-4. Grant, Michael (1972), Cleopatra, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson; Richard Clay (the Chaucer Press), ISBN 978-0-297-99502-9. Roller, Duane W. (2010), Cleopatra: a biography, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-536553-5. Burstein, Stanley M. (2004), The Reign of Cleopatra, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, ISBN 978-0-313-32527-4. Jones, Prudence J. (2006), Cleopatra: a sourcebook, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, ISBN 978-0-8061-3741-4, archived from the original on 24 December 2019, retrieved 27 March 2018.

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